An ethnic Afghan, Sher Shah Suri( 1486-1545) also known as Farid Khan laid the foundation of the Suri Empire in Bihar. He was a great warrior, an eminent leader, a great strategist, and also a powerful administrator. Sher Shah Suri took over the Mughal empire in 1538 by defeating the Mughal emperor Humayun. He established the capital of the Suri dynasty at Sasaram, Bihar.
He was born in Sasaram and later on fled to Juanpur, Uttar Pradesh to serve its governor Jamal Khan. Sher khan served under the Bahar Khan Lohani who was the Governor of Bihar. He had later on rewarded him the title ‘Sher Shah’ when he killed a tiger which leaped upon Lohani. After his death, Sher Khan became the regent ruler in Bihar under the sultan Jalal khan.
By seeing his growing rule in Bihar, Jalal Khan with assistance from Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah sent an army. Sher Khan defeated the army under General Ibrahim Khan at the Battle of Surajgarh in 1534. It led to Sher Khan having complete control of Bihar. In 1538, he attacked Bengal which was ruled by Mahmud Shah. This strike was a failure because Humayan rose to power.
Sher Khan was a man of determination. He struck again against Humayun in the battle of Chausa in 1539 and defeated him. Moreover, in 1540, he forced Humayun to leave India after defeating him at Kannauj. After the fled of Humayun, he laid the foundation of the Suri dynasty. Suri destroyed the old cities captured by him. He introduced the term Rupiya which is still the national currency of India.
Sher Shah Suri was a remarkable architect and built several monuments. The Grand Trunk Road was rebuilt and modernized under his supervision. The Rohtas Fort( now in Pakistan), Sher Shah Suri Masjid in Patna, Qila-a-Kuhna in Delhi, and the Sher Mandal are some of his astounding works. Sher Shah Suri had proved himself that he was a man of wisdom and courage and he had left a legacy behind him.
But soon after his sudden death in 1545 during the siege of Kailnjar Fort, the Suri Dynasty couldn’t last long. The 16 years long rule came to an end in 1556 when the Mughal emperor defeated the last ruler Adil Shah Suri. The restoration of the Mughal dynasty with Humayun as the King took place soon after.