Chirand : A Glimpse of evolved civilization in Bihar.

Chirand : A Glimpse Of Evolved Civilization In Bihar

Bihar, the ancient land of Buddha, has witnessed golden period of Indian history. It is the same land where the seeds of the first republic were sown and which cultivated the first crop of democracy. Such fertile is the soil that has given birth to innumerous intellectuals which spread the light of knowledge and wisdom not only in the country but in the whole world. The state has its capital at Patna, which is situated on the bank of the holy river Ganga.

One of the most historical place is Chirand which was situated in  Chhapra Block in Saran District of Bihar State, India. It belongs to Saran Division . It is located 11 KM towards East from District head quarters Chhapra. 5 KM from Chhapra. 39 KM from State capital Patna.

Chirand site is considered rare among the archaeological sites across the country because of the rare pieces of evidence related to the growth of human civilisation there. The mound located at the site contains archaeological evidence of a step-by-step evolution of civilisation from the Neolithic age to the Pala age.

Archaeological findings of Chirand.


Analysis of antiquities related to skeletal remains revealed 12 species of domesticated and wild animals: cattle, buffaloes (Bubalisbubalis linn), sheep (Ovis aries), cheetal (Axis axis), barasinga, pig, elephant, rhinoceros, cheetal (Axis axia), dog, a carp and two types of turtles.


25,000 potsherds excavated from Chirand are grouped according to the Period II Neolithic pottery appearing more refined than the Period I pottery, all from smoothed clay mixed with mica.


Neolithic people lived in circular wattle and daub huts made of mud and reeds with rammed floors. Earlier hut floors were built below ground level, later hut floors were built at ground level.


Pendants, ear-rings, bangles, discs and combs from the Neolithic period were found.[9] 400 bone tools, mostly used for hunting, made from antler and long bones of deer and cattle were found in Chirand and at Burzahom from Period II and Period III. Terracotta figurines included humped bulls, birds, snakes, and human female figurines. The snake figures are indicative of existence of Naga cult among the Neolithic people.

Historical background of the place.

The Pal dynasty ruled the region that included Chirand during the medieval period. Ananda, a disciple of Buddha, died in Chirand. King Mayurdhwaj of the Chero dynasty ruled from Chirand.W.W. Hunter, a historian known for publishing nine volumes of The Imperial Gazetteer of India, has recorded an account of this village which he visited in 1871.

Pal dynasty was the ruler of this historical place.

Pala dynasty, ruling dynasty in Bihar and Bengal, India, from the 8th to the 12th century. Its founder, Gopala, was a local chieftain who rose to power in the mid-8th century during a period of anarchy. His successor, Dharmapala (reigned c. 770–810), greatly expanded the kingdom and for a while was in control of Kannauj. Pala power was maintained under Devapala (reigned c. 810–850), who carried out raids in the north, the Deccan, and the peninsula; but thereafter the dynasty declined in power, and Mahendrapala, the Gurjara-Pratihara emperor of Kannauj in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, penetrated as far as northern Bengal.

Worst situation of Chirand which washes away the historical connection.

“A big chunk of the archaeological site has already been eroded and devoured by the Ganga in the past few days. And during a visit to the site on Ganga Dussehra on June 21, we found that it’s under the threat again. River Ganga is swelling up and might inundate riverbanks any day.

These days, the buildings and walls are covered with thick grass and bushes. Bricks are coming out of walls while the ancient age pots, which can still be seen intact in walls, are being trampled by cattle and human beings.

Chirand need immediate conservation works. “It’s the only site in the state where we can witness the gradual growth of civilisation consecutively. One can see there the crops cultivated by Neolithic people and the kind of huts they used to builC

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